A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867, while retaining ties to the British crown. Canada gained legislative independence from Britain in 1931 and formalized its constitutional independence from the UK when it passed the Canada Act in 1982. Economically and technologically, the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across the world’s longest international border. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care, education, social services, and economic competitiveness, as well as responding to the particular concerns of predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.

Table 1 – Canadian Prime Ministers

NoCanadian Prime MinisterTermParty
1John A. Macdonald 1867-1873 Conservative
2Alexander Mackenzie 1873-1878 Liberal
3John A. Macdonald 1878-1891 Conservative
4John Abbott 1891-1892 Conservative
5John Thompson 1892-1894 Conservative
6Mackenzie Bowell 1894-1896 Conservative
7Charles Tupper1896 Conservative
8Wilfrid Laurier 1896-1911 Liberal
9Robert Borden 1911-1920 Conservative
10Arthur Meighen 1920-1921 Conservative
11Mackenzie King 1921-1926 Liberal
12Arthur Meighen1926 Conservative
13Mackenzie King 1926-1930 Liberal
14R.B. Bennett 1930-1935 Conservative
15Mackenzie King 1935-1948 Liberal
16Louis St. Laurent 1948-1957 Liberal
17John Diefenbaker 1957-1963 Conservative
18Lester Pearson 1963-1968 Liberal
19Pierre Trudeau 1968-1979 Liberal
20Joe Clark 1979-1980 Conservative
21Pierre Trudeau 1980-1984 Liberal
22John Turner1984 Liberal
23Brian Mulroney 1984-1993 Conservative
24Kim Campbell1993 Conservative
25Jean Chretien 1993-2003 Liberal
26Paul Martin 2003-2006 Liberal
27Stephen Harper 2006-2015 Conservative
28Justin Trudeau 2015-  Liberal

Table 2 – Top 5 Canadian Lakes by Area

Lake Superior 82,100 km2 (31,700 sq mi) Ontario 28,700 km2 (11,100 sq mi)/USA 53,400 km2 (20,600 sq mi)
Lake Huron 59,600 km2 (23,000 sq mi) Ontario 36,000 km2 (14,000 sq mi)/USA 23,600 km2 (9,100 sq mi)
Great Bear Lake 31,328 km2 (12,096 sq mi) Northwest Territories
Great Slave Lake 28,568 km2 (11,030 sq mi) Northwest Territories
Lake Erie 25,700 km2 (9,900 sq mi) Ontario 12,800 km2 (4,900 sq mi)/USA 12,900 km2 (5,000 sq mi)

Table 3 – Top 5 Canadian Mountains by Height

Mount Logan  Yukon 5956 m
Mount Saint Elias  Alaska 5489 m
Mount Lucania  Yukon 5260 m
King Peak  Yukon 5173 m
Mount Steele  Yukon 5020 m

Table 4 – Top 5 Canadian Rivers by Length

Mackenzie River Northwest TerritoriesThutade LakeBeaufort Sea 4,241 km
Yukon River British Columbia, Yukon, AlaskaTeslin LakeBering Sea 3,185 km
Saint Lawrence River Minnesota, Wisconsin, Ontario, Michigan, Ohio, New York, QuebecSeven Beaver LakeGulf of Saint Lawrence 3,058 km
Nelson River ManitobaBow GlacierHudson Bay 2,575 km
Slave River Alberta, Northwest TerritoriesThutade LakeGreat Slave Lake 2,338 km